Swiftly

Swift 5.7 references for busy coders

@MainActor

@MainActor is a keyword that is used to ensure a function or class only runs on the main thread. This can be used to ensure that UI updates are only done on the main thread, and not on a background thread.

@MainActor functions

You can ensure that a function only runs on the main thread by marking it with @MainActor:

import _Concurrency // If using Playgrounds

@MainActor
func someFunction() {
  print("This function is running on the main thread.")
}

Task {
  await someFunction()
}

// Output: This function is running on the main thread.

@MainActor structs and classes

You can also ensure an entire struct or class runs on the main thread with @MainActor:

import _Concurrency // If using Playgrounds

@MainActor
struct SomeStruct {
  func someFunction() {
    print("This function is running on the main thread.")
  }
}

Task {
  let someStruct = await SomeStruct()
  await someStruct.someFunction()
}

Limitations

A piece of code marked with @MainActor might still contain additional logic that runs on a different threat if it is sent to a different dispatch queue:

import Foundation
import _Concurrency // If using Playgrounds

@MainActor
func someFunction() {
  print("1️⃣ On main thread: \(Thread.isMainThread)")

  DispatchQueue.global(qos: .background).async {
    print("2️⃣ On main thread: \(Thread.isMainThread)")
  }
}

Task {
  await someFunction()
}

// Output:
// 1️⃣ On main thread: true
// 2️⃣ On main thread: false

See also

Further reading